Reporting of Just Culture


Contact organisation EUROCONTROL: The European organisation for the safety of air navigation
Contact organisation unit Directorate European Civil-Military Aviation - Performance Review Unit (DECMA/PRU)
Contact name Performance Review Unit - EUROCONTROL
Contact mail address 96 Rue de la Fusée
1130 Brussels
Contact e-mail address [email protected]

Metadata update

Metadata last certified not applicable
Metadata last update 16 August 2021

Statistical presentation

Data description

ref. EASA Annex to ED Decision 2014 / 035 / R

Reporting of Just culture|Just Culture (JC) aims at identifying possible obstacles and impediments to the application of Just Culture.

Just culture means a culture in which front line operators or others are not punished for actions, omissions or decisions taken by them that are commensurate with their experience and training, but where gross negligence, willful violations and destructive acts are not tolerated.

In accordance with EU legislation, States and ANSPs are required to complete a questionnaire which measures the level of presence and corresponding level of absence of Just Culture.

A detailed description of the indicator and data requirements are available from the EASA Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance Material (EASA AMC/GM).

Just Culture is studied for the first time at European level.

The PRB and EASA acknowledge that the JC definition provided in EU IR691 / 2010 is just one of the available definitions of JC.

Classification system

The JC indicator is determined at State and ANSP level.

The areas surveyed in the questionnaire are:

  • policy and its implementation,
  • legal/judiciary, and occurrence reporting; and,
  • and investigation.

The questions are answered with “yes” or “no” in order to reveal obstacles and impediments in each of the three areas.

Sector coverage

The measures pertain to the Air Transport and Air Traffic Management Sector of the economy.

Statistical concepts and definitions

The metrics are based on two questionnaires (State and ANSP level) published in the EASA AMC/GM documents.

Policy and its implementation Legal/judiciary Occurrence reporting and investigation
State level Questionnaire 9 questions 7 questions 2 questions
ANSP level questionnaire 13 questions 3 questions 8 questions

For each answer justification and evidence should be provided in order to better understand and assess possible obstacles and impediments to the application of JC.

Additionally to the questionnaires, States and ANSPs may report on Just culture using the following formats:

It is expected that each certified provider completes the ANSP JC questionnaire, with exception of those who avail all the air navigation services to other certified ANSPs in accordance with Article 10 of (EC) 550 / 2004.

NSAs are required to gather information on JC from appropriate entities in the State (e.g. Minister of Transport, Justice Department) to complete the State questionnaire.

Statistical unit

The statistical units are States and ANSPs.

Statistical population

The statistical population comprises the States and ANSPs in the Single European Sky Area.

Reference area

The reference area is the Single European Sky Area.

Time coverage

2012 is the first year for which data is presented (available in 2013).

Base period

Not applicable.

Unit of Measure

Answers provided by the States/ANSPs.

Reference period

  • The first reference period (RP1) covers the calendar years 2012 to 2014 inclusive.
  • The second reference period (RP2) covers the calendar years 2015 to 2019 inclusive.
  • The third reference period (RP3) covers the calendar years 2020 to 2024 inclusive.

Unless decided otherwise, the following reference periods shall be of five calendar years.

Institutional Mandate

Legal acts and agreements are established in


Release policy

Release calendar

Typically information is released annually in in June of the following year.

Release calendar access

Not applicable.

User access

Information is disseminated to the general public via the SES Data Portal.

Frequency of dissemination

Information is disseminated on a yearly basis as soon as the data is verified.

Dissemination format

Information is disseminated to the general public via the SES Data Portal.

Accessibility of documentation

Documentation on methodology is available at EASA Acceptable means of compliance and guidance material.

Quality Management

The legal framework for quality management is established by EU legislation.

Quality assurance

EASA verifies both NSAs and ANSPs questionnaires through desktop audits. The PRB is involved in some EASA verifications through temporary participation of PRU staff.

For each State, EASA verifies the State’s questionnaire, the questionnaire completed by the largest ANSP and one additional ANSP randomly chosen.

The quality assurance includes, inter alia, the following processes:

  • verification of the legal references using the national gazette website,
  • cross-check with data available in external sources (e.g. the Network Manager and/or EUROCONTROL),
  • cross-check with information published in States’s or ANSP’s website.

Further, EASA will conduct a verification on the qualitative analyses which have been submitted by States and ANSPs through the tables contained in AMC 9 SKPI and AMC 10 SKPI.

Quality assessment

The NSAs are responsible to verify the questionnaires completed by ANSPs and to report results of the verification to EASA. There are at least two types of NSA organisation for verifying the questionnaires: either there is a specific organisation or the existing oversight organisation is used to verify the questionnaire. The uniformity of NSA verification output across Europe is maintained through:


The information is published for performance monitoring purposes in accordance with the relevant EU legislation.


The data is collected for the entire Single European Sky Area.

Accuracy and reliability

Overall accuracy

The accuracy of the indicator can be influenced by the the NSAs and ANSPs interpretation of the survey questions.

While the JC indicator helps identifying obstacles to impediments to the application of JC, it does not provide an indication of the magnitude of those obstacles. The complementary qualitative analysis of the evidence and justifications provided by States and ANSPs is therefore an important element of the overall assessment.

Timeliness and punctuality


The data refer to the status of JC which was measured the year before its publication.


The data is updated by ANSPs and NSAs at least once per year. The data is then verified by EASA in March of the following year.


Data are comparable being measured in the same way across European Member States. However, benchmarking is not allowed in safety.

Comparability — geographical

Geographical comparability is valid.

Comparability over time

Comparisons over time are valid.


Coherence — cross domain

Not applicable.

Coherence — internal

The data is assumed to be internally coherent as provided.

Cost and burden

Not available.

Data revision

Data could change with time due to two reasons:

  • to reflect a change in managing JC within a State or an ANSP,
  • to reflect an improved verification.

Statistical processing

Source data

Questionnaires and forms completed by States and ANSPs (see also the Statistical concepts and definitions section).

The completed tables included in AMC 9 and 10 (optional).

Frequency of data collection

After the first completion, ANSPs and NSAs are requested to update the questionnaires on a yearly basis.

Data collection

The State and ANSP questionnaires are collected by EASA though a web application.

Data validation

EASA verifies the updated questionnaires by March of the following year at the latest. After EASA verification, the data described are sent to the PRB by March of the following year at the latest.

The data validation is done as follows:

  • During the desktop verification, the consistency between the answer (yes or no), the justifications provided and the evidence is evaluated.
  • In a second step, the level of JC implementation is verified through external information available to EASA, NM and PRB. Clarification questions could be addressed to the NSA either via mail or telephone.

Data compilation

Following the verification by EASA, the following data is provided to the PRB:

  • the States’ completed questionnaires including justifications and evidence;
  • the ANSP questionnaires verified by EASA, including justifications and evidence;
  • the JC PI computations for each State and each ANSP; and,
  • the qualitative analyses on areas of improvements provided by ANSPs, NSAs and the ones directly performed by EASA.


Not applicable.


No comments.


This data is published by the Performance Review Body (PRB) of the Single European Sky. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information and analysis contained on this website are as accurate and complete as possible. Despite these precautions, should you find any errors or inconsistencies we would be grateful if you could please bring them to the Performance Review Unit’s attention.

The information may be copied in whole or in part providing that the copyright notice and disclaimer are included. The information may not be modified without prior written permission from the PRB. The views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views or policy of EUROCONTROL or of the European Commission, which make no warranty, either implied or express, for the information contained on this website, neither do they assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of this information. The PRB reserves the right to change or amend the information provided at any time and without prior notice.