There is an initiative underway to optimise the operational environmental and fuel-burn benefits of continuous climb operations (CCO) and continuous descent operations (CDO) in Europe. While CDO is a natural pilot technique, a relatively modest portion of the potential benefits – in fuel burn, noise and emissions reduction – are being realised. The task force set up under the aegis of EUROCONTROL in 2015 to agree on harmonised definitions of CDOs, metrics and parameters for measurement across the continent is addressing this by developing a high-level European CCO/ CDO Action Plan to provide a renewed impetus to the programme. The Plan will outline the task force’s view on what actions will be needed to make further gains in performance improvements, especially from CDO, and will give more detail on current barriers to further implementation and what can be done to overcome them. The Plan will, therefore, help every stakeholder to understand better the complexity of optimising CCO/CDO, highlighting potential best-practice solutions in European airspace.