Base of Aircraft Data (BADA)
Base of Aircraft Data (BADA), is an Aircraft Performance Model (APM) developed and maintained by EUROCONTROL through active cooperation with aircraft manufacturers and operating airlines. The information and data contained in BADA is designed for use in aircraft trajectory simulations and predictions BADA is a fundamental enabler namely for:
- trajectory simulation in the air traffic modelling and simulation tools which are used to support R&D, validation and assessment of new ATM concepts, ATC procedures, advanced controller decision support tools and equipment before they are introduced into operational service;
- trajectory prediction in the ground based operational ATM systems (Flight Data Processing Systems) to better plan traffic flows, reduce delays, operating costs and minimize adverse environmental impact, and
- environmental studies in terms of aircraft emissions assessments.
BADA is made out of two components:
- Model specifications: theoretical fundaments provided in form of generic polynomial expressions used to calculate aircraft performance parameters. BADA Aircraft Performance Model is based on a kinetic approach to aircraft performance modelling, which models aircraft forces. The motion model that is used within BADA is a so-called Total Energy Model (TEM). TEM equates the rate of work done by forces acting on the aircraft to the rate of increase in potential and kinetic energy. It can be considered as being a reduced point-mass model.
- Datasets: a dataset for a given aircraft contains the specific value of the coefficients present in the model specification that particularize the BADA model for a specific aircraft type.
There are two families of BADA APM, based on the same modelling approach and components:
- BADA Family 3: today’s standard for aircraft performance modelling providing a 90% coverage of the current aircraft types operating in the ECAC airspace. The primary objective of BADA 3 is to model aircraft behaviour over the normal operations part of the flight envelope and to meet today's requirements for aircraft performance modelling and simulation.
- BADA Family 4: a newly developed model intended to meet advanced functional and precision requirements of the new ATM systems and R&D providing a 60% coverage of the current aircraft types operating in ECAC airspace. BADA 4 provides accurate modelling of aircraft over the entire flight envelope and enables modelling and simulation of advanced concepts of future systems.
The use of BADA is regulated through a license agreement which stipulates terms and conditions of use based on the contractual constraints EUROCONTROL is committed to with its data source providers.
BADA Family 3
BADA Family 3
In its current version, BADA 3.10, includes aircraft models for 339 different aircraft types. For 127 of these aircraft types the BADA datasets have been developed using reference aircraft performance data sources originating from aircraft manufacturers. These are the so-called directly supported aircraft. For the other 272 types, the data is specified to be the same as one of the 127 directly supported aircraft.
BADA Family 3 Aircraft Performance Model Specifications
Model specifications are presented in the “User Manual for BADA” which is updated with each yearly release.
BADA Family 3 Data Sets
Three different files are available for each directly supported aircraft in BADA:
- OPF File - This file holds all the thrust, drag and fuel coefficients to be used in TEM together with information on weights, speeds, maximum altitude, etc.
- APF File - This file defines a default operational climb, cruise and descent speed schedule that is likely to be used by an airline.
- PTF File - This file presents the nominal performance of the aircraft model ithe form of a look-up table. It gives the user direct access to average performance data without the necessity to implement the complete TEM.
- SYNONYM.NEW - This file holds the list of all aircraft types (synonym and directly supported models) which are supported by the BADA revision.
Details on how the coefficients provided in the dataset for a specific aircraft type are defined are provided in the BADA Development document
The main features related to the maintenance and support of the BADA Family 3 are explained in the BADA Product Management document.
BADA Family 3 Documents
BADA 3.10 - documents available to the public
- Revision Summary Document for the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) Revision 3.10 (pdf)
- User Manual for the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) Revision 3.10 (pdf)
- Coverage of 2011 European Air Traffic for the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) Revision 3.10 (pdf)
BADA 3.10 - documents available upon request
- Aircraft performance Summary Tables for the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) Revision 3.10
- Model Accuracy Summary Report for the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) Revision 3.10
- Synonym Aircraft Report for the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) Revision 3.10
To request these documents or material about previous versions of BADA, please do not hesitate to contact us by email
Other BADA related documents
- Revision of Atmosphere Model in BADA Aircraft Performance Model (pdf)
- Advanced aircraft performance modeling for ATM: enhancements to the BADA model 2005 (pdf)
- Advanced aircraft performance modelling for ATM: analysis of BADA model capabilities 2010 (pdf)
- Enhancement in realism of ATC simulations by improving aircraft behaviour models 2010 (pdf)
BADA Family 4
BADA Family 4
For the time being the BADA Family 4 can only be used for internal purposes by EUROCONTROL.
The appropriate terms and conditions for the use of the BADA Family 4 outside of EUROCONTROL are currently being discussed with aircraft manufacturers who are principal providers and owners of the aircraft performance reference data required to develop the BADA Family 4 datasets. The use of BADA Family 4 will require users to sign a specific licence agreement with EUROCONTROL. The terms are likely to be different from the web licence terms for BADA Family 3.
It is also likely that the user community will be more restricted. In a first time, BADA Family 4 is likely to be provided to organizations that can justify a need for aircraft performance data with increased levels of precision and who commit to and are able to demonstrate that they are able to safeguard confidentiality of BADA and that they will only use them for the permitted use.
- Access to BADA Family 4
The BADA database can be used by anyone in the EUROCONTROL organisation and can be obtained by contacting the BADA Support.
Access to BADA data files is also given to a number of Air Navigation Service Providers, research and development organisations, universities and commercial entities, to the extent necessary to enable them to work on Air Traffic Management related projects. The use of BADA is free of charge, but limited to the kind of work/projects mentioned above.
If you feel that your organisation could use BADA and you would like to get access to it, you may wish to obtain a BADA user license. To do so, please submit a request by using the BADA request form provided below. It is necessary that you include a detailed description of your needs for BADA. Your request will not be considered unless an accurate description of your needs is provided.
BADA request form:
License agreements for other tools using BADA (external to EUROCONTROL)
Several tools have been developed, outside of EUROCONTROL, incorporating the BADA data files (e.g. TAAM, EDMS, AEDT, etc.). In order to acquire these tools , a EUROCONTROL approval of use must first be sought.
The BADA Calculation Tool is a web based application with access provided to Users. The primary function of the BADA Calculation Tool is called Aircraft Performance Calculation (APC) session which allows the calculation of aircraft performances based on BADA for all flight phases (including flight envelope) under various conditions. The input parameters are chosen by the user. The calculation results are made available to the users in two ways: displayed on the screen and provided in text file which can be downloaded for further use. In addition to the APC function, there are other functionalities such as:
- speed conversions;
- transition altitude calculation between redefined CAS and Mach;
- atmospheric conditions.
The tool also provides a “synonym search” function to assist the user to identify an aircraft model in BADA which meets the User selected criteria in terms of aircraft performance characteristics.
Access to the BADA Calculation Tool
The application is readily available and accessible within EUROCONTROL intranet for internal EUROCONTROL users. It can however be provided to licensed BADA external users following request in the licence agreement form.
BADA Support Application
The BSA (BADA Support Application) is a principal communication media between BADA licensed users and the BADA team at EUROCONTROL. The BSA is a web-based application developed with the BMC/ Remedy Action Request System ©.
The BSA can be directly accessed here.
More details on how to use the BSA are provided in the User Guide.
Should you have any problems to report or would like to make suggestions for BADA improvements; you can use the BADA Support Application (BSA) or send an e-mail to the BADA Support team.
The BADA Support Team Phone: 00-33-(0)1 69 88 76 15